Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Frenatin 2.3S (F2.3S) is able to internalize within bacterial cells and can bind nucleic acids. F2.3S shows a high depolarization and membrane destabilization activities. F2.3S has the capacity to protect cells from yellow fever virus infection, a property that might be related to the immunomodulatory properties reported for the peptides of frenatin family. The ED50 for the F2.3S peptide against E. coli (0.23 ± 0.01) was five-fold lower than the required for S. aureus. F2.3S was not toxic to primary human monocytes even at a 100-fold higher concentration than their calculated antimicrobial ED50. F2.3S displayed depolarization and bacterial cell leakage at lower peptide concentrations than the effective dose for E. coli antibacterial activity. F2.3S did not have the capacity to produce agglutination in E. coli even at the maximum concentration tested (5 μM).
Ideally Frenatin 2.3S should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Frenatin 2.3S should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Muu00f1oz-Camargo C, Salazar VA, Barrero-Guevara L, et al. Unveiling the Multifaceted Mechanisms of Antibacterial Activity of Buforin II and Frenatin 2.3S Peptides from Skin Micro-Organs of the Orinoco Lime Treefrog (Sphaenorhynchus lacteus). Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(8)
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-GLVGTLLGHIGKAILGG-OH
- Chemical Formula:C72H126N20O19
- Sequence length:17
- Extinction coefficient:0 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:1575.89
- Theoretical pI:10.09
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
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