Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short, amphipathic peptides that are typically cationic in sequence and display broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and protists. Herein, we report the effect of appending the amino terminal copper and nickel binding motif (ATCUN) to Sub5. The Cu-ATCUN derivatives show a two- to three-fold increase in antimicrobial activity for a variety of microbes, relative to Sub5, with MICs as low as 0.3 ± 0.1 μM toward Enterococcus faecium. Sub5 and the ATCUN derivatives bind both plasmid DNA and 16s A-site rRNA with low micromolar affinity. Native Sub5 and the metallopeptide derivatives were shown to promote damage against DNA to similar extents in cellular studies against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an almost threefold higher activity against the latter organism. Liposome experiments show that the metallopeptides have a greater affinity for model membranes of E. coli and S. aureus relative to Sub5, which correlates with their enhanced antimicrobial activity. Sub5 and the metalloderivatives also display no cytotoxicity toward adult human dermal fibroblasts. Addition of the ATCUN motif conferred the ability to promote lipid oxidation toward E. coli and S. epidermidis and enhanced membrane permeability, as evidenced by the extent of ATP leaked from cellular membranes relative to Sub5 alone. These data suggest that Cu-ATCUN derivatives inhibit microbes through multiple modes of action, resulting in an enhancement in their overall potency.
Ideally Cu-ATCUN type1 should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Cu-ATCUN type1 should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Alexander JL, Thompson Z, Yu Z, Cowan JA. Cu-ATCUN Derivatives of Sub5 Exhibit Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity via Multiple Modes of Action. ACS Chem Biol. 2019;14(3):449-458
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-GGHRRWKIVVIRWRR-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C90H148N36O15
- Sequence length:15
- Extinction coefficient:11380 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:1974.36
- Theoretical pI:13
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"