Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Epinecidin-1 is an antimicrobial peptide with antitumor and antiviral activity. It corresponds to positions 22-42 of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) epinecidin-1 and shows structural homology to pleurocidin found in the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus). The synthetic peptide Epinecidin-1 has the potential to serve as a therapeutic drug for use against bacterial infectious diseases. It also showed antiviral activity against non-enveloped, spherical virus (betanodavirus) (Wang Y et al. 2010 Peptides 31: 1026-33). It showed efficacy in the animal model:zebrafish (Pan CY et al 2011 Fish Shellfish Immunol online Sep 10, in press). Animal model:mouse: Epi-1 can reduce MRSA bacterial counts in the wounded region, promote wound healing, and increase angiogenesis at the injury site. Epi-1 treatment decreaseds the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1 in the serum, and regulated the recruitment of monocytes and clearance of lymphocytes around the wounded region during healing (Huang HN et al., 2013). Updated 9/20/11; sequence 10/7/2013. The source of Epinecidin-1 is orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.
Ideally Epinecidin-1 should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Epinecidin-1 should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Z.X.Yin et al., Aquaculture, 253, 204 (2006)
- C.Y.Pan et al., DNA Cell Biol., 26, 403 (2007)
- J.Y.Chen et al., Peptides, 30, 2365 (2009)
- C.Y.Pan et al., Peptides, 30, 1058 (2009)
- W.J.Lin et al., Peptides, 30, 283 (2009)
- C.Y.Pan et al., Peptides, 31, 806 (2010)
- T.J.Chia et al., Fish Shellfish Immunol., 28, 434 (2010)
- Y.D.Wang et al., Fish Shellfish Immunol., 28, 113 (2010)
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-GFIFHIIKGLFHAGKMIHGLV-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C114H176N30O21S
- Sequence length:21
- Extinction coefficient:0 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:2334.86
- Theoretical pI:10.6
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
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• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
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