Three letter code
H-Ser-Ser-Met-Lys-Leu-Ser-Phe-Arg-Ala-Arg-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Arg-Gly-Pro-Gly-Pro-Gln-Leu-OH Trifluoroacetate salt
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide derived form chromogranin A (CHGA). Diminished expression of catestatin might increase the risk for hypertension. In Chga-/- mice rescue of elevated blood pressure to normalcy was achieved by either exogenous replacement of catestatin or transgenic expression of human Chga. Active against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. This sequence is highly conserved across species. There are three single nucleotide polymorphisms: G364S, P370L, and R374Q. The G364S and R374Q mutants are inactive while the P370L mutant is more active than the WT. A recent study (Radek et al. Gallo, RL 2008. J Invest Dermatol 128:1525-34) established that this peptide is upregulated upon injury of skin and is part of cutaneous immune systems. It can induce mast cell migration, degranulation and production of cytokines and chemokines (Aung G et al 2011 Immunology 132:527-39). The peptide is also antioxidant, thereby preventing free radical-induced DNA damage (Mohseni S et al., 2014). Updated 9/11; 4/2014 GW. Catestatin has Antibacterial, Antifungal activity. Catestatin was found in Homo sapiens.
Ideally Catestatin (human) should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Catestatin (human) should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- C.V.Taylor et al., J. Biol. Chem., 5, 275 (2000)
- N.R.Mahapatra et al., J. Clin. Invest., 115, 1942 (2005)
- N.R.Mahapatra, Cardiovasc. Res., 80, 330 (2008)
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-SSMKLSFRARAYGFRGPGPQL-OH
- Chemical Formula:C104H164N32O27S
- Sequence length:21
- Extinction coefficient:1280 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:2326.67
- Theoretical pI:12.13
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"